Extended Wisconsin card-sorting test

… is introduced to illustrate practopoiesis.

In a standard Wisconsin card-sorting test patients are asked to use trial and error in order to detect a rule by which cards need to be sorted on four decks. The only feedback they receive is “correct” or “wrong”. Importantly, during the sorting procedure the rule changes without a warning and the patients need to find the new rule solely on the basis of the correct/wrong feedback.

In a standard test there are three options for the sorting rule: color, shape or number of the elements on the card. This task can be implemented by a T2 adaptive system.

Extended Wisconsin card-sorting test is a hypothetical test that is much harder to solve. In this test the sorting rules are much more difficult and non-intuitive. For example, instead of a red card being grouped with other red cards, in the extended version, a red card may have to be grouped with a star-shape, or a blue color on one card with four elements on the other card. The key is that the person cannot select from a preexisting set of sorting rules but has to discover new, counter-intuitive ones.

This mental operation is much more difficult and requires logical abduction and a T3-system. For logical abduction, a T3-system relies on anapoiesis.

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